Daily Life

Roman State Gods

The Romans worshipped twelve main gods, whom they called the Olympians. These Roman gods were similar to the twelve Olympian gods worshipped by the Greeks, except that they had Latin names. Three of these Roman gods were especially important in Roman religion and were considered the official gods of the Roman state: Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. Jupiter was the "King" of the gods and the father of the divine family. Besides ruling over the other gods, he was also the god of the sky and the patron god of Rome. Juno was Jupiter’s wife and sister. She was the goddess of fertility and childbirth, and the protector of the Roman state. Minerva was the daughter of Jupiter and the goddess of learning, handicrafts, trade guilds, the arts, and war. Together, Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva were worshipped in a temple on the Capitoline hill in Rome, the most sacred religious precinct in the city. This temple to the "Capitoline Triad" was the largest and most lavishly decorated temple in Rome.


© Michael C. Carlos Museum of Emory University,
Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Rochester and Dallas Museum of Art
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